what is the principle of electronic balance



Are you curious about how an electronic balance works? Electronic balances have become an essential tool in various industries, including laboratories, pharmacies, and manufacturing plants. These precise instruments allow for accurate measurements of mass by utilizing advanced technology. In this article, we will explore the principle behind electronic balances, their components, and their applications.

The Components of an Electronic Balance

Electronic balances consist of several key components that work together to provide accurate weight measurements. Let's take a closer look at each of these components:

Weighing Pan:

The weighing pan is where the object or sample to be measured is placed. It is usually made of stainless steel or other non-reactive materials to avoid any interaction with the substance being weighed. The pan is designed to distribute the weight evenly and minimize the effect of any external factors that could affect the measurement.

Load Cell:

The load cell is the heart of an electronic balance and is responsible for converting the weight applied on the weighing pan into an electrical signal. It consists of a strain gauge, an elastic element, and an electrical circuit. When a load is applied to the weighing pan, it causes the strain gauge to deform slightly, changing its electrical resistance. This change in resistance is measured by the circuit, which converts it into an electrical signal proportional to the weight.


The sensor, also known as a transducer, is used to detect the electrical signal generated by the load cell and convert it into a digital value. Modern electronic balances often use strain gauge sensors or electromagnetic force compensation sensors. These sensors provide high accuracy and precision, ensuring reliable measurements.


The display is where the weight measurement is shown to the user. It can be a digital screen, typically an LCD (liquid crystal display), or an LED (light emitting diode) display. The weight is typically displayed in grams or other units, depending on the application and user preference. Some electronic balances also feature additional functions, such as tare and counting features, which are displayed on the screen.

Microprocessor and Control Unit:

The microprocessor and control unit are responsible for processing the data from the sensor and displaying the weight measurement on the screen. They also handle various functions, such as calibration, unit conversion, and data storage. The microprocessor ensures the accuracy and reliability of the measurements by applying calibration algorithms and compensating for temperature variations.

The Principle of Operation

Now that we have a basic understanding of the components of an electronic balance let's delve into the principle behind its operation. The principle is based on the concept of force restoration. Here's how it works:

When an object or sample is placed on the weighing pan, it exerts a force on the load cell due to its weight. The load cell measures this force and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is then sent to the sensor, which converts it into a digital value.

The control unit compares the digital value with a reference value and calculates the difference. It then applies a force to counterbalance the weight of the object or sample using a feedback loop. This force can be generated through various mechanisms, depending on the type of electronic balance.

For example, in an electromagnetic force compensation balance, an electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field that interacts with a magnetic mass. By adjusting the current passing through the coil, the magnetic force can be precisely controlled to balance the weight. The current required to achieve balance is measured and used to calculate the weight of the object or sample.

In a strain gauge balance, the deformation of the strain gauge due to the applied weight is detected and used to generate a compensating force. This force is applied through a motor or an electromagnetic field to restore the balance.

Applications of Electronic Balances

Electronic balances find applications in various industries and fields due to their accuracy and precision. Here are some examples of their applications:


Electronic balances are extensively used in laboratories for weighing chemicals, reagents, and samples. They play a crucial role in conducting experiments, preparing solutions, and ensuring accurate measurements in research and development.


In pharmacies, electronic balances are utilized for precise weighing of ingredients in compounding medications. They ensure that the prescribed dosage is accurate, promoting patient safety and effective treatment.


Electronic balances are indispensable in manufacturing plants, especially in quality control and production processes. They are used for weighing raw materials, checking the consistency of blends, and verifying the weight of finished products.

Food Industry:

In the food industry, electronic balances are used for portion control, recipe formulation, and quality assurance. They help ensure accurate measurements for consistency in taste and nutritional content.

Jewelry and Precious Metals:

Electronic balances are commonly employed in the jewelry industry for weighing precious metals and gemstones. They enable accurate measurement of weights for pricing, assessment, and certification purposes.


In conclusion, electronic balances are essential tools that rely on the principles of force restoration to provide accurate and precise weight measurements. Their components, including the weighing pan, load cell, sensor, display, and microprocessor, work in harmony to ensure reliable results. These balances find applications in various fields, such as laboratories, pharmacies, manufacturing, food industry, and jewelry. With their advanced technology and capabilities, electronic balances continue to enhance efficiency and accuracy in diverse industries, making them indispensable in the modern world.


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